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UGC Minor research project ‘’Induction of genetic variability through mutagenesis and invitro techniques in Chilly (Capsicum annuum. L)’’

(MRP) No: F. MRP (S) 1379/11 – 12/KLCA045/UGC – SWRO.

1. Name and address of Principal Investigator: Dr .C.M. Abdul Salam    

                                                                                               Dept. of Botany

                                                                           KAHM  Unity Women’s College, Manjeri

                                                              Narukara. P. O. Malappuram,

                                           Kerala – 676 122.

2.  Name and address of the institution:       KAHM Unity Women’s College, Manjeri

                                                  Narukara. P. O. Malappuram,

                               Kerala – 676 122.  

3.  UGC approval No. and date:  F. MRP (S) – 1379/ 11 - 12/KLCA 045/UGC – SWRO

                                                         dated 28 -09 – 2012

4.  Date of implementation:  17 - 12- 2012

5.  Tenure of the project:   from 17- 12- 2012 to 07 - 11- 2014

6.  Total grant allocated: Rs. 2, 00,000/-

7.  Total grant received: Rs. 1, 73,500/-

8.  Final expenditure: Rs. 2, 00,000 /-

9.  Title of the project: Induction of genetic variability through mutagenesis and   invitro techniques in Chilli( Capsicum annuum. L.)”

10. Objectives of the project:

  • to study the biological damages induced by mutagens like inhibition in seed germination, seedling injury, cotyledonary abnormalities and  pollen sterility in M1 generation.
  •  to study the response of the mutagen treated of seedling explants to in vitro culture and to  isolate desirable mutants, if formed. 

             ·   to analyze the frequency and spectrum of morphological and chlorophyll mutants if any, in M2 generation.

   ·  to analyze statistically the genotypic and phenotypic variability of M2 population and isolate mutants having desirable characters, if formed.

11. Whether objectives were achieved: Yes   

  • A gradual decrease was observed in seed germination with the increasing concentrations of mutagen. The growth of the seedling also decreased with the increasing concentrations of mutagen. A decrease in pollen fertility was observed after the mutagen treatment and it was dose dependant i. e. the pollen fertility decreased with the increasing concentrations of mutagen.
  • Cotyledonory explants start to produce callus tissues after two weeks of incubation time in 0.5 mg IAA + 2.0 mg IBA hormone combination. Internodal explants from mutagen treated seedlings produced shoots and  callus tissue at the base of intermodal cutting in 1.0 mg IAA + 5.0 mg BAP and 5.0 mg IAA + 5.0 mg BAP.
  • Two types of morphological mutants were isolated in M2 generation. They are Dwarf short fruit mutant and slender long fruit mutant. The occurrence of chlorophyll mutants were absent in NMU treatedM2 population.
  • A significant shift in mean values was observed with respect to the characters such as plant height, primary branches/plant, secondary branches/plant, number of fruits/plant and fruit yield/plant. The genetic parameters such as phenotypic and genotypic coefficients of variation, heritability and genetic advance increased over control population in almost all the treatment doses.

12. Achievements from the project:

  1. A dose dependant relation in various biological damages in mutagenised population of Capsicum annuum L. var. Athulya was established.

  2. Genetic variability created and various types of macro and micro mutants having some desirable characters shall be utilized for further improvement of this crop. Though some of the mutants having negative selection value it can be used for cross breeding programmes and supplement the germplasm resource.

3. The response of intermodal explants to invitro growth media and production of viable calli could be utilized for the micropropagation and invitro mutagenic studies for the further improvement of the crop.  

13. Summary of the findings:     

Seeds of Capsicum annuum L. variety Athulya were treated with 0.01%, 0.02%, 0.03% and 0.04% concentrations of chemical mutagen N- nitroso n- methyl urea. The treated seeds were thoroughly washed in water and sown in poly bags in order to raise the seedlings. 45 days old seedlings were transplanted to experimental field in Completely Randomized Block Designs with three replicates to raise M1 population. For raising M2, 50 healthy seeds of both the varieties from each normal looking plant of all the different treatments with their respective controls were selected and sown in poly bags to raise the seedlings. Forty five days old seedlings were transplanted in the field in Completely Randomized Block Designs in plant progeny rows.

A gradual decrease was observed in seed germination with the increasing concentrations of mutagen. The growth of the seedling also decreased with the increasing concentrations of mutagen in M1 generation. A dose dependant decrease in pollen fertility was observed after the mutagen treatment.

Various types of meiotic chromosomal abnormalities with different frequencies were observed in M1 generation in four concentrations of N- nitroso n- methyl  urea treatment. The frequencies of chromosomal abnormalities increased with the increase in mutagen concentrations.

Two types of morphological mutants were isolated in M2 generation. Attempts were made to isolate micro mutations using statistical methods for ten polygenic traits. A significant shift in mean values was observed with respect to the characters such as  plant height, primary branches/plant, secondary branches/plant, number of fruits/plant and fruit yield/plant. The genetic parameters such as phenotypic and genotypic coefficients of variation, heritability and genetic advance increased over control population in almost all the treatment doses.

In invitro experiments, only the intermodal explants responded to the medium and produced shoots and callus tissue. However, the seedling explants failed to respond to the medium. Cotyledonory explants start to produce callus tissues after two weeks of incubation time in 0.5 mg IAA + 2.0 mg IBA hormone combination. Internodal explants from mutagen treated seedlings produced shoots and  callus tissue at the base of intermodal cutting in 1.0 mg IAA + 5.0 mg BAP and 5.0 mg IAA + 5.0 mg BAP.  

14. Contribution to the society:

The response of intermodal explants to growth media can be effectively utilized for the further improvement and standardization of micropropagation techniques in chilli. The increase in genetic variability and isolation some desirable mutants in M2 population through the technique of chemomutagenesis can be effectively utilized for the release of new crop types better adapted to new climatic and agronomic conditions. Moreover developing better crop types suitable to changing climatic conditions using this method is treated as one of the promising means to compact the grave situation of depletion biodiversity and crop loss in our agriculture sector as a result of global warming.   

15. Whether any Ph D enrolled/ produced out of the project:  Not applicable to Minor Research Project

16. No. of publications out of the project: Publications are under preparation.

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR                                                                PRINCIPAL